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Orthogonal processing strategies to create “phage-free” whey – Membrane filtration followed by thermal or ultraviolet C treatment for the reduction of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages

See — Lactococcal bacteriophages can cause fermentation failures in the cheese production (e.g., Cheddar), especially when the by-product whey (≤109 plaque-forming units mL-1 of bacteriophages) is recycled and added to new batches. Using membrane filtration, the bacteriophage titre in whey can be reduced by 4 log units without protein denaturation. To achieve higher bacteriophage reduction (≥9 log units), we attempted an orthogonal process strategy (combination of different technologies supporting each other). Three representative bacteriophages were inactivated in membrane filtered whey by (i) UV-C irradiation and (ii) heat treatment to achieve additional 5 log units reduction. Thermal treatment was only partially…
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